لَّا يَتَّخِذِ : Do not appoint / do not take.
قوله تعالى: "لَّا يَتَّخِذِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِن دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۖ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ فَلَيْسَ مِنَ اللَّـهِ فِي شَيْءٍ إِلَّا أَن تَتَّقُوا مِنْهُمْ تُقَاةً ۗ وَيُحَذِّرُكُمُ اللَّـهُ نَفْسَهُ ۗ وَإِلَى اللَّـهِ الْمَصِيرُ"(آل عمران: ٢٨).
TAFSIR IBN KATHIR:
This verse discuss on how Muslims should treat the non-Muslims, where Allah warned the Muslims in this verse to avoid from appointing the non- believers as ‘wali Allah’ or as their leaders. This is a cautious act in order to avoid any misconduct by the non- Muslims that may occur as a result from trusting them as protectors or as leaders. Allah proceeded the verse by mentioning that whoever ignores this message and does the opposite from what Allah requested, they will not be secured by the help of Allah. This is a reminder from Allah for the Muslims, so that the Muslims do not seek protection from the leader, nor causing enmity towards the wali of Allah.
Although Allah gave a clear prohibition from appointing the non- believers as leaders, there are a few exceptions to it. Referring to Surah An- Nahl verse 126, which means; “With the exception of those who are not forced to say they do not believe, although their hearts remain firm in faith”. This verse implies that the above command is an exception towards anyone who is in a state of jeopardy if he does not accept the non- Muslims as leaders. It is also an exception for anyone who are trying to avoid from being harmed by the non- Muslims, therefore, it is forgivable that they seek protection from the non- Muslims. For example, if a Muslim lives in a country ruled by a non- Muslims, it is acceptable for him to seek help from that non- Muslim leader in order to be safe. These are the Muslims who have no choice but to bow down towards the commands of the non- Muslims, but in reality, their hearts are against it.
This whole verse explains clearly on how we should act towards the non- Muslims. We should be considerate by tolerating with them. However, our level of consideration should not reach to the extent of making them as leaders. For example, the wars that occurred during the time of prophet Muhammad PBUH, the Muslims were repeatedly reminded not to appoint the non- Muslims as leaders even though it seems like they could gather more strength if they seek help from the non- Muslims. This is none other but to shape the Muslims to have a strong faith in Allah, and to trust Allah more than they trust the non- Muslims although it seems like the non- Muslims can guarantee safety for them. Another reason why Muslims should not easily trust and seek help from the non- Muslims is because they might have a hidden agenda that we are not aware of. So, to be cautious, it is advisable for the Muslims to always be careful of whom they trust. It is important for us to always bear in mind that every strength that mankind has was given by Allah. Thus, if it appears to us that the non- Muslims have stronger army than us, avoid seeking help from them. Rather, trust Allah that He will give a better strength to us since he is the origin of all strength.
According to the Tafsir at-Thabari, this verse is talking about the prohibition of the Muslim in joining the partner with Kuffar and helping them in fighting against the other Muslim and reveals the Muslim’s weakness. Whoever did it, they have to know that they will no longer receive any help from Allah as they had betrayed the religion and throwing themselves to the wrong path. Allah forbids Muslims to neglect their own brother while being good to the non-Muslims only. This is not the brotherhood that the religion is emphasized on. So, as Muslims, we have to be tolerating to each other and prioritize on the things that will make the religion stronger rather than creating argument between people.
TAFSIR FI ZILAL AL-QURAN:
Syed Qutb has display the very stern warning in verse 28, because the verse is very clear that a Muslim disowns Islam if he forges or form a relationship of alliance or patronage with someone who is actually cut himself cut himself off from God. Muslims should not forge alliance with the unbelievers because Allah alone is the alliance of the believers.
This term (لا يتخذ) brings meaning ‘do not forge’ which means it is a prohibition to Muslims forming alliance with the enemies of Allah. The unwelcomed confrontation is prohibited and whoever do this has already cut off the relationship with God, meaning that he has no more tie or support or faith with God.
The permissible of concession can only be done in the condition or state of fear. Such people may try to protect themselves by pretending to support the unbelievers, but this must be understood to be only a verbal support given for a specific purpose. It cannot be an expression of any firmly established alliance or deeply rooted love.
Syed Qutb has taken the sayings of Ibn Abbas, “The concession here must not be understood as to seek protection through acting in support of unbelievers; it must be limited only to verbal statements.
It can be understood that there is no concession whatsoever for a relationship of love between a believer and an unbeliever. It is implied here and explicitly stated elsewhere in this verse that an unbeliever is a person who does not accept that God’s revelation be implemented in all aspects of life. The concession never permits a believer to aid the unbeliever, in any way or form pretending to protect himself. God will never ever be deceived by anyone by any way.
قوله تعالى: "يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا بِطَانَةً مِّن دُونِكُمْ لَا يَأْلُونَكُمْ خَبَالًا وَدُّوا مَا عَنِتُّمْ قَدْ بَدَتِ الْبَغْضَاءُ مِنْ أَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَمَا تُخْفِي صُدُورُهُمْ أَكْبَرُ ۚ قَدْ بَيَّنَّا لَكُمُ الْآيَاتِ ۖ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ"
(آل عمران: ١١٨).
TAFSIR IBN KATHIR:
In this verse, Allah warned the Muslims not to appoint the hypocrites among the non- believers as advisors. This is because, the hypocrites or the Munaafiqun are always planning on taking down the Muslims. They would usually use any way they can to confuse, oppose and harm the believers. They would expose the secrets of the Muslims to the enemies so that the Muslims are easily defeated. The hypocrites would make it seems like they are on the Muslims’ side, while the reality, their hearts are full of hatred towards the Muslims.
From this verse, it discusses on the relationship between Muslims and non- Muslims by stating the prohibition of the Muslims from easily trusting the non- believers without any cautious step. The non- believers or the Munaafiqun are constantly causing problems to the Muslims. The Muslims should be extra careful on whom they trust, because the hypocrites might be anyone among them. The hypocrites will deceive the Muslims by offering help to the Muslims and try to develop good relationship, but at the same time, they are against the Muslims and are willing to expose the secrets and weaknesses of the Muslims to the enemy with the intention to drag the Muslims down. This is the reason why Allah reminded His servants of this deceiving act of the non- believers.
According to at-Thabari, this verse saying about the prohibition of Muslim in making non-Muslim as their close partner and this due to the characters of non-believers as they have the feeling of hatred and enmity lies within their heart towards the people with different faith then them. It is said that the non-believers always hoping that bad things will happen to others. These attitudes are obviously wrong and to avoid the Muslims from falling into the trap of non-believers, it is need for them to make sure that there are distance between Muslims and non-believers.
TAFSIR FI ZILAL AL-QURAN:
According to Syed Qutb, this verse is full of details on people’s innermost thought. It records inner feelings and apparent reactions. It captures every little movement and it is a picture of a certain type of person who can be seen in every age, in every society, professing friendship with the Muslims when the Muslims are strong and victorious. The unbelievers’ claims, however, are belied by their every thought, every feeling and every organ.
Muslim should take precaution when dealing with the unbelievers because Muslims may be deceived by them, placing their trust in them when they wish nothing but trouble and confusion for the Muslims and spare no effort to inflict hardships on them. They most determinedly seek to undermine the Muslims, whenever they have a chance to do so, at any moment of day or night.
The term La yattakhiz brings meaning do not take. According to Syed Qutb, God tells the Muslims not to make any such people their advisors and confidants. However, the Muslims do not heed this directive. They continue to refer to such people in every matter and situation and look up to them for guidance in every system, method and philosophy.
The Quranic verse has been a reminder to the believers in Medina that people around them who rejects their faith and have strong hatred towards Muslims can’t be trusted. Thus, Muslims should concern on the warning from God, and this warning is not only meant to the Muslim community in particular period but it applies all the time.
Syed Qutb also expressed his frustration when Muslims not realized and not take this warning seriously. This is because time has revealed the wickedness of those who reject Islam, who are being good at the appearance but have intention to destroy Islam and somehow Muslims still being friendly to them. We can have tolerance with them but never open our hearts to them and treat them as close friends throughout life.
NurShahida Zainal- Aishah Azlan- Nur Masitah Shaiful Anuar